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Full text of "Insects of Samoa and other Samoan terrestrial arthropoda"

BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) £^^^3,///,/^ 

INSECTS OF SAMOA 

AND OTHER SAMOAN TERRESTRIAL 
ARTHROPODA 



PART VII. OTHER ORDERS OF INSECTS 

FASC. 4. Pp. 117-129 
PSOCOPTERA 

By Dr. H. H. KARNY, 

VIENNA. 

WITH EIGHT TEXT-FIGURES 




1 




LONDON ; 

PRINTED BY ORDER OP THE TRUSTEES OP THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

SOLD AT 

The Beitish Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, S.W.7 

and BY 

B. Quaritch, Ltd. ; Dulau & Co., Ltd. ; and The Oxford University Press. 



1932 



Issued 27th February, 1932.] 



[Price One Shilling. 



INSECTS OF SAMOA 

AND OTHER SAMOAN TERRESTRIAL 
ARTHROPODA 

Although a monograph, or series of papers, dealing comprehensively with 
the land arthropod fauna of any group of islands in the South Pacific may be 
expected to yield valuable results, in connection with distribution, modification 
due to isolation, and other problems, no such work is at present in existence. 
In order in some measure to remedy this deficiency, and in view of benefits 
directly accruing to the National Collections, the Trustees of the British 
Museum have undertaken the publication of this account of the Insects and other 
Terrestrial Arthropoda collected in the Samoan Islands, in 1924-1925, by 
Messrs. P. A. Buxton and G. H. E. Hopkins, during the Expedition of the 
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine to the South Pacific. 
Advantage has been taken of the opportunity thus afforded, to make the studies 
as complete as possible by including in them all Samoan material of the groups 
concerned in both the British Museum (Natural History) and (by courtesy of 
the authorities of that institution) the Bishop Museum, Honolulu. 

It was not intended that contributors to the text should be confined to the 
Museum Staff or to any one nation, but, so far as possible, the assistance of the 
leading authorities on all groups dealt with has been obtained. 

The work is divided into nine " Parts " (see p. 3 of wrapper), which are 
subdivided into "Fascicles." Each of the latter, which appear as ready in 
any order, consists of one or more contributions. On the completion of the 
systematic portion of the work it is intended to issue (in Part IX) a general 
survey, summarising the whole and drawing from it such conclusions as may 
be warranted. 

A list of Fascicles already issued will be found on pp. 3 and 4 of this wrapper. 

E. E. AUSTEN, 

Keeper of Entomology. 

British Museum (Natural History), 
Cromwell Road, S.WJ. 



INSECTS OF SAMOA 



Part VII. Fasc. 4 

PSOCOPTERA. 
By Dr. H. H. Kabny, Vienna. 

(With 8 Text-figures.) 

Since Dr. Rechinger (Denkschr. Math -Nat. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Bd. 81, 
pp. 197-318, 1908 ; Bd. 84, pp. 385-562, 1909 ; Bd. 85, pp. 175-432, 1910 ; 
Bd. 88, pp. 1-65, 1912 ; Bd. 89, pp. 443-708, 1914 ; Bd. 91, pp. 139-213, 1915), 
on his expedition to the Samoa Islands, did not collect any Psocoptera, all 
species of this group, of which specimens were obtained by Messrs. Buxton 
and Hopkins, constitute new records. Of the eleven species represented in the 
series before me seven are new, whilst the others were previously known as 
occurring in New Guinea, from the Biro collection described by Enderlein in 
1903 {Ann. Mus. Nat. Hung., I, pp. 179-344, Taf. III-XIV). 

The following is the list of the Psocoptera collected by Buxton and Hopkins 
in Samoa : — 

1. Zorotypus buxtoni, sp. n. 

2. Nepticulomima biroiana (Enderl.). 

3. Lepidopsocus hopkinsi, sp. n. 

4. Echmepteryx desquamata, sp. n. 

5. Pteroxaniella (g.n.) bifurcata, sp. n. 

6. Phlotodes samoanus, sp. n. 

7. Clematostigma brevistylus (Enderl.). 

8. Hemipsocus luridus (Enderl.). 

9. Philotarsus samoanus, sp. n. 

10. Mepleres submarginalis, sp. n. 

11. Caecilius novoguineensis (Enderl.). 
VII. 4 — 1 



118 



INSECTS OF SAMOA. 



The new species are all peculiar to Samoa, so far as yet known ; the four 
others have been previously recorded from the Papuan-Melanesian Region, and 
Hemipsocus luridus also from the Malayan Region. 

The collection consists of about thirty or forty specimens, most of which 
are dried and pinned ; a few are in alcohol and some are prepared as microscope 
slides. The majority of the specimens belong to the " scaly-winged " species. 



Sub-order ZORAPTERA. 
ZOROTYPIDAE. 

1. Zorotypus buxtoni, sp. n. (Text-fig. 1). 

A single specimen in spirit from Upolu : Malololelei, 2,000 feet, 25.vi.1924 
(Buxton and Hopkins). As both antennae are broken, and only the first six 

joints can be studied, it is im- 
possible to make out with certainty 
whether we have to do with a 
juvenile or with a full-grown 
specimen. The insect was col- 
lected in rotten wood. 

Yellow, weakly chitinised, ap- 
terous. Second joint of antennae 
distinctly shorter than third, 
though more than half so long as 
latter. Maxillary palpus 5- jointed, 
basal and penultimate joints 
very short, remainder long and almost cylindrical. Labial palpus 3-jointed, 
penultimate joint very short, nearly globular, constricted at base, remaining 
joints long, almost cylindrical. Cercus conical, terminating in a long, thick, 
apical style or seta, at base of which is a small annular joint as in Z. javanicus 
Silvestri (Boll Lab. Zool. Portici, VII, pp. 208-209, figs. XII, XIII, 1913 : cf. 
Karny, Treubia, IX, p. 4, fig. 3 (upper right-hand figure), 1926). 

This new species should come, according to Caudell's key (Trans. Amer. 
Ent. Soc, XL VIII, p. 135, 1922), between Zorotypus ceylonicus Silvestri (Boll. 
Lab. Zool. Portici, VII, pp. 207-208, figs. VIII-XI, 1913) and Z. javanicus 
Silvestri ; it differs from both in the shape of the second antennal joint, this being 




Text-fig. 1. — Zorotypus buxtoni, sp. n. Antenna 
from first to sixth joint (above) ; labial palp 
(left) ; maxillary palp (below) ; cercus (right). 



PSOCOPTERA. 



119 



more constricted than in Z. ceylonicus, and much, longer than in Z. javanicus. 
From Z. silvestrii Karny and Z. caudelli Karny, my new species differs in the 
shape of the cerci (cf. Treubia, IX, p. 4, fig. 3 (lower right-hand figure), 1926, and 
III, p. 20, fig. 7, 1923). Zorotypus buxtoni differs similarly from the hitherto 
known American species, including Z. neotropicus Silvestri (Boll. Lab. Zool. 
Portici, X, p. 120, 1916), Z. manni Caudell (Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., XXV, 
pp. 60-62, 1923), and Z. longicercatus Caudell (Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., XXIX, 
pp. 144-145, 1927) : in the last-named no terminal seta is present. 

Sub-order, COPEOGNATHA. 

AMPHIENTOMIDAE.* 
Perientominae.* 
Perientomini.* 

2. Nepticulomima biroiana (Enderlein, 1903) (Text-fig. 2). 

Perientomum biroianum Enderlein, Ann. Mus. Nat. Hung., I, pp. 327-328, fig. 12 ; Taf. XI, 

fig. 60 b ; Taf. XII, figs. 60 a and c, 1903. 
Nepticulomima biroiana Enderlein, Spolia Zeyl., IV, p. 95 (footnote), and pp. 101-102, 1906. 

Upolu : Apia, ii.1924, 1 specimen; 16.V.1924, 1 specimen; l.xi.1924, 
1 specimen ; viii.1925, 1 specimen (slide) ; ix.1925, 2 specimens (slides) ; 27.X.1925, 
1 specimen (slide) ; 28.X.1925, 1 specimen (slide) ; 29.X.1925, 1 specimen. 

Savaii : Salailua, 21.V.1924 (Bryan), 1 specimen. 

As regards venation (text-fig. 2) and the other characters indicated by him, 
the above-mentioned specimens agree very well with Enderlein's description. 

Enderlein could not describe the colour more accurately, since the type 
specimen was too much damaged. I am now able to complete his description, 
as follows. The fore wings are dark brown in the basal third, with a wide, silvery, 
finely dark -punctured cross-band near the middle ; the apical portion is again 
dark brown. The dark areas are very finely punctured with whitish. The 
fringe is coloured like the wing itself, but before the apex are two fight, silvery 
spots, one on the fore, the other on the hind margin ; these do not extend on to 
the wing. In the apical part of the anterior margin of the hind wings the fringe 
shows three wide dark brown bands, and between them two silvery spots. 



* In this paper, I follow the system established by me in Treubia, XII, pp. 431-461, 1930. 



120 



INSECTS OF SAMOA. 



Since the colouration of the fore wing was unknown to Enderlein, he was 
unable to include this species in his key (Spol. Zeyl., loc. cit.), the following 
addition to which may now be made. 

4. Fore wing dark brown, with brassy yellow spots ..... essigkeana Enderl. 

Fore wing grey-brown, with silvery markings ..... 4a. 
4a. Fore wing dark grey-brown, with a broad silvery cross band and two 

silvery fringe spots before apex (one on fore, one on hind margin) . biroiana Enderl. 
Fore wing relatively narrow, grey-brown, with large silvery marginal 

spots ........... sakuntala Enderl. 




Text-fig. 2. — Nepticulomima biroiana (Enderlein). Front and hind wings ; the dotted 
line in the hind wing indicates an anomalous cross-vein, present in one specimen. 

This species was previously known only as occurring in New Guinea. 

In one of the examples before me there is an anomalous cross vein in the 
hind wing, running from the posterior branch of the radial sector to the first 
branch of the medial vein. In text-fig. 2 I have indicated this cross vein, 
which is absent in all the other specimens, by a dotted line. 

Echmepterygini . 

3. Lepidopsocus hopkmsi, sp. n. (Text-fig. 3). 

Upolu : Vailima, 25.X.1924, 1 specimen (type) ; Malololelei, 2,000 feet, 
28.vi.1924, 2 specimens ; vii.1924, 2 specimens ; 25.xi.1924, 3 specimens ; 
30.xi.1924, 1 specimen; Apia, 29.X.1925, 1 specimen; l.xi.1924, 1 specimen. 
All specimens dried. 



PSOCOPTERA. 



121 



Closely resembling L. nepticulides Enderlein (Ann. Mus. Nat. Hung., I, 
pp. 330-331, Taf. IX, fig. 62 a, Taf. X, figs. 62 d-f, Taf. XI, fig. 62 b, Taf. XII, 
figs. 62 c, g, 1903), but pattern of front wings somewhat different : ground colour 
less yellowish and more golden-greyish than in Enderlein's fig. 62 a, and in 
basal portion dark brown colour not dissolved into spots, but forming a con- 
tinuous dark wing base ; in middle and apical part of wing colour pattern exactly 
as in Enderlein's figure. 

It is possible that we are merely dealing with a colour variety of Enderlein's 
species, although, having regard to geography, this would not seem very probable, 




Text-fig. 3.- — Lepidopsocus hopkinsi, sp. n. Front and hind wings. 



for the type of L. nepticulides was obtained in Singapore, whilst L. Jwpkinsi was 
discovered in Samoa. 

Moreover, apart from the wing colouration, L. Jwpkinsi is easily distinguish- 
able from Nepticulomima biroiana by its venation. In the front wing, there 
are no closed cells ; in the hind wing the longitudinal veins have a common 
origin (in Nepticulomima, on the contrary, they arise from two main stems, 
which are separate and come together again and so enclose a very narrow 
closed basal cell) ; moreover the radial vein arises in Lepidopsocus from the 
common chief stem between the cubital vein and M 2 ; but in Nepticulomima 
it arises shortly before the sectoral fork, i.e. after the origin of the whole medial 
vein. 



122 



INSECTS OF SAMOA. 



4. Echmepteryx desquamata, sp. n. (Text-fig. 4). 
Upolu : Apia, 29.x. 1925, 1 specimen (slide, type) ; l.xi.1924, 1 specimen 
(dry). 

The genus Echmepteryx differs from Lepidopsocus most distinctly in the 
venation of the front (Enderlein, Spot. Zeyl, IV, p. 103, 1906) and hind 
wings. In the latter, the radial vein arises in Echmepteryx near the base, and 




Text-fig. 4. — Echmepteryx desquamata, sp. n. Front and hind wings. 



cannot be distinguished near the costa ; further, the fork of the radial sector is 
much shorter than in Lepidopsocus (cf. text-figs. 3 and 4). 

I cannot state the colour of the front wings, since the scales are too much 
rubbed away (hence the name desquamata) in both specimens before me. Legs 
pale brownish-yellow ; hind tibiae infuscate at base and distally ; first tarsal 
joint also greyish, following ones brownish-yellow. 

Among the species at present known, E. desquamata is nearest allied to 
E. mihira Enderlein, of Ceylon (Spol. Zeyl, IV, pp. 104, 107-108, pi. C, fig. 22, 
pi. E, fig. 81, pi. F, fig. 106, pi. G, fig. 122, 1906), but the radial fork in the fore 
wing is much wider, and the stem of the cubital fork longer than in that species 
(text-fig. 4). 

Echinopsocini. 
Pteroxaniella, gen. n. 
Owing to the absence of hind wings, this genus belongs to the Echinopsocini, 
from all the known genera of which it differs owing to the radial sector being 
forked. The stem of this sector is in contact with the medial stem at one point, 
where the latter is bent at an angle (cf. Scolopama Enderlein, Spol. Zeyl., IV, 



PSOCOPTERA. 



123 



pi. F, fig. 108, 1906). Subcostal and radial veins both simple, medial and 
cubital veins both forked. The tip of the fore wing of the solitary specimen 
obtained is damaged, but I am inclined to think that the apex of the wing is 
not acuminate, but simply rounded, as in Pteroxanium Enderlein (Ent. Mo. 
Mag. (3) VIII, p. 103, figs. 1-6, 1922). 

Genotype : Pteroxaniella bifurcata, sp. n. 

5. Pteroxaniella bifurcata, sp. n. (Text-fig. 5). 

Upolu : Malololelei, 2,000 feet, 28.vi.1924, 1 dry specimen (type). 

Each vein bears a series of circular pits, marking the insertions of the setae, 
as in Pteroxanium (Enderlein, loc. tit., fig. 2, 1922), and Scolopama (Enderlein, 
Spol. Zeyl., loc. tit., 1906). This cha- 
racter is not indicated in the schematic 
text-fig. 5. Scales on front wing very 
narrow, setiform, as in Pteroxanium (cf. 
Enderlein, Ent. Mo. Mag., loc. cit., figs. 
4 and 5, 1922). Wings pale, yellowish, 
with three dark grey cross bands, first 
of which (near base) runs somewhat 
obliquely (text-fig. 5) ; middle band be- 
ginning on hind margin, and bent twice 
at right angles in centre ; a spot on costa between basal and middle bands ; 
apical band forked close to costa. Bands due, not to pigmentation of wing 
membrane, but to bristles and setiform squamae inserted in it. 

The present species differs from all those hitherto described in its wing 
venation, and especially in the radial sector being forked ; for this reason it is 
necessary to assign it to a new genus. 




Text-fig. 5. — Pteroxaniella bifurcata, gen. et 
sp. n. Front wing (diagrammatic). 



PS0C1DAE. 
Myopsocinae. 
6. Phlotodes samoanus, sp. n. (Text-fig. 6). 
Upolu : Apia, 27.vii.1924, 1 dry specimen (type). 

Antennae yellowish-brown, long and densely hairy ; forehead brownish- 
yellow, with some dark spots. Body dark brown. Front wings with a dark 
longitudinal band along fore margin of basal part, subsequently emitting a wide 



124 



INSECTS OF SAMOA. 



cross branch which passes backwards, reaching hind margin about in centre of 
anal cell ; longitudinal band then continued to pterostigma. A similar dark 
oblique band running from beginning of areola postica into space between 
hindmost branch of radial sector and anterior branch of media. Ends of radial 
and medial branches with longitudinal dark markings. All these dark bands 

sprinkled with whitish-hyal- 
ine ; wing area between dark 
bands whitish-hyaline, sprink- 
led with brown. Venation as 
shown in text-fig. 6. Coloura- 
tion of legs as in P. kolbei 
Enderlein. First joint of hind 
tarsi with about 30 ctenidia 
(text-fig. 6) ; no ctenidia dis- 
cernible on second and third 
joints. Each ctenidium is 
composed of about four minute 
teeth, last of which is much 
longer and thicker than re- 
mainder. 

Length of fore wing 3 mm. 
Owing to the ctenidia being so numerous, the species described above 
resembles Phlotodes mjobergi Karny (Saraivak Mus. Journ., Ill, pp. 63-64, 
1925), of Sarawak ; in other respects, however, it comes nearest to P. kolbei 
(Enderlein) (Ann. Mus. Nat. Hung., I, pp. 302-303, Taf. IX, fig. 51 a, Taf. X, 
fig. 51 b, 1903), of New Guinea. Nevertheless it is clearly distinct from P. kolbei 
owing to the greater number of its ctenidia, and the details of the wing venation ; 
the radial fork cell in the hind wing is narrower than in the Papuan species, and 
the median vein is closer to the radial sector. Further, the veins of the fore 
wing are less strikingly thick and prominent than in the figure given by Enderlein, 
and that part of the areola postica which is bordered by the median vein is 
wider. The band pattern of the front wing, too, is somewhat different. 




Text-fig. 6. — Phlotodes samoanus, sp. n. Ramification 
of median vein of front wing (above) ; hind wing 
(centre) ; and hind tarsus (below). 



PSOCOPTERA. 



125 



PSOCINAE. 

Psocini. 

7. Clematostigma brevistylus (Enderlein). 

Enderlein, Ann, Mus. Nat. Hung., I, p. 233, Taf. XIV, fig. 76 {Copostigma). 

Upolu : Vaea, Apia, 1,200 feet, 20.ii.1915, 1 dry specimen; Malololelei, 
2,000 feet, 25.vi., 25.xi.1924, 3 dry specimens. 

This species was originally described from the Biro collection, from New 
Guinea, and is characterised by the strikingly short radial stem in the front wing. 
In the case of a single specimen from Malololelei, markings of the front wing are 
precisely as figured by Enderlein ; in the three others the terminal branches of 
M-j-Cu and the part of the hind margin between them are enclosed in a smoky 
area : the pattern therefore resembles that exhibited by Copostigma indicum 
Enderlein (he. cit., Taf. XIV, fig. 73), except that there is only a single, hyaline, 
drop-like spot in the middle of each fork cell. The fact that this variety is 
specifically identical with C. brevistylus (Enderlein) is proved by the wing 
venation. 

Hemipsocini. 
8. Hemipsocus luridus (Enderlein). 
Savaii : Salailua, 21.V.1924 (Bryan), 1 dry specimen. 

The specimen before me belongs to that species of Hemipsocus which is 
characterised by the presence of dark punctures on the veins in the front wings. 
This species was originally determined by Enderlein in 1903 (Ann. Mus. Nat. 
Hung., I, p. 234, Taf. IV, fig. 17) as H. chloroticus (Hagen), because he mistook 
it for Hagen's species, although he added : " Dass iibrigens Hagen die Punk- 
tierung der Adern nicht angiebt . . . ist auffallig." At the same time, 
Enderlein (he. cit., p. 235) described the New Guinea form of his " chloroticus " 
as var. luridus. 

Subsequently Enderlein (Stett. Entom. Zeit., 67, p. 311, 1906), on the basis 
of material from Japan, described the form without punctures on the veins 
as a new species under the name Hemipsocus liyalinus. Many years later, when 
studying the Selys-Longchamps Collection, Enderlein (Coll. Zool. Edm, de 
Selys Longchamps, iii, 2, p. 39, Taf. V, fig. 29, 1919) discovered that his H. 
liyalinus was identical with the true H. (Psocus) chloroticus of Hagen, as proved 
by the re-examination of a typical specimen of the latter. Thus H. chloroticus 



126 



INSECTS OF SAMOA. 



(Enderlein, 1903, nec Hagen) required a new name, and Enderlein (op. cit., 
p. 40, 1919) named it H. selysianus, nom. nov. In so doing, however, he was in 
error, since the varietal name luridus must necessarily be employed for this 
species. 

The two forms, occurring in Singapore and in New Guinea, have now to 
be called respectively H. luridus selysianus and H. luridus luridus, if they are 
to be considered distinct; according to Enderlein (1903), the whole difference 
between them is that the body colour is yellowish-brown in the former and 
reddish-brown to greyish-brown in the latter. The specimen now before me 
belongs, so far as can be determined from the dried specimen, to the darker 
(Papuan) form, that is to say H. luridus luridus Enderlein (Ann. Mus. Nat. Hung. , 
I, p. 235, Taf. IV, fig. 17a, 1903). 



LACHESILLIDAE. 



Elipsocinae. 

9. Philotarsus samoanus, sp. n. (Text-fig. 7). 

Upolu : Apia, 27.vii.1924, 1 dried specimen (type). Bred from a twig of 
mango, which was tunnelled by Scolytids (Buxton and Hopkins, No. 709 A). 

Length of fore wing 1-5 mm. 
Body brownish. Antennae 
long and thin, the segments 
elongate, dark brown, whitish 
at the joints, pale ; hairs seti- 
form, long, arranged close to the 
tips of the segments. Eyes dark. 
Dorsal surface of head pale, with 
many dark brown dots. Femora 
dark brown, with pale, well- 
defined cross bands at base, in 
middle, and at tip. Tibiae dark, 
with well-defined pale markings 
at base and tip. Tarsi three- 
jointed (text-fig. 7), brown. 




Text-fig. 7. — Philotarsus samoanus, sp. n. Front 
and hind wing, and leg. 



Front wing pattern (text-fig. 7) resembling that of the Australian Cladioneura 
fuhhrvpennis Enderlein (Zool. Jahrb., Abt.f. Syst., XXIII, p. 405, Taf. 23, fig. 5, 



PSOCOPTERA. 



127 



1906), especially in the dark dots at the insertions of setae on the longitudinal 
veins ; these dots in P. samoanus, however, are in single rows only, whilst in 
C. pidchrifennis they are in double rows. The dark spot on the margin of the 
areola postica is not elongate basad, as in Cladioneum, but forms with the 
pterostigmal spot an interrupted cross band, which passes forwards across the 
medial vein, but without reaching the radial sector. 

As is shown by the veins and bristles of the hind wings (text-fig. 7), this 
species belongs without any doubt to Philotarsus ; one can see at once that 
it differs from Cladioneum owing to the tarsi being three- jointed. In the 
genus Philotarsus, among the species known to me it is nearest allied to P. 
maculatus Tillyard, of New Zealand, which it resembles owing to the presence of 
conspicuous spots on the front wing, though their arrangement is quite different. 
The same is the case if one compares it with P. fraternus, of Bolivia, and with 
the European P. faviceps. Moreover, my new species is much smaller than 
any of the three species with which I have compared it. 

Lachesillinae. 
Lachesillini. 

10. Mepleres submarginalis, sp. n. (Text-fig. 8). 

Upolu : Apia, 20.xi.1924, 1 dried specimen (type). 
Length of fore wing 1-5 mm. 

Dorsal surface of body black, legs and antennae pale yellowish. Antennae 

clothed with extraordinarily long bristly hairs. Wings hyaline, front wing 

(text-fig. 8) with large dark spot 

in middle ; a dark marginal streak 

running from close to end of hind 

branch of radial sector into areola 

postica, and then passing obliquely 

across latter : an oblique dark sub- 

. . . Text-fig. 8. — Mepleres submarginalis, sp. n. 

marginal streak beginning at tip of Front wing. 

anterior branch of radial sector, 

following this and continuing in same direction obliquely backward to areola 
postica. 

The genus Mepleres was founded by Enderlein in 1926 (Zool. Mededeel., 
IX, p. 61) for a new species (M. maeandricus) found in Java ; to this genus 




128 



INSECTS OF SAMOA. 



Enderlein added two further species originally attributed to Hemicaecilius, viz. 
H. limbatus Enderlein (Zool. Anz., XXXIII, p. 770, 1908), of Formosa, and 
H. suzukii Okamoto {Ann. Mus. Nat. Hung., VIII, pp. 193-194, Taf. Ill, fig. 5, 
1910), of Japan. Here also belongs the species which I originally described as 
Hemicaecilius nigroguttatus (Karny, Sarawak Mus. Joum., Ill, p. 73, PI. 3, fig. 7, 
1925), from a specimen from Sarawak ; my reference in Treubia, XII, p. 451, 
1930, should therefore be to M&pleres, and not to Hemicaecilius. 

The genus M&pleres agrees with Hemicaecilius (genotype H. bogotanus 
Enderlein, Zool. Jahrb., Abt. f. Syst., XVIII, p. 358, Taf. 17, fig. 9, 1903) in 
possessing a two-branched (simply forked) medial vein in the front wing, but 
differs in other important respects as regards the front wing venation. In 
Mepleres, radial sector and medial vein coincide for a rather long distance ; in 
Hemicaecilius, on the contrary, they are connected only by a short cross-vein. 
Thus Hemicaecilius is referable to the tribe Epipsocini, and not to the Lachesillini, 
where some twelve months ago I erroneously placed it (cf. Karny, Treubia, XII, 
p. 451, December, 1930). 

As in the other members of the genus Mepleres the front wing in the species 
described above bears dark markings, but in the arrangement of this pattern 
M. submarginalis differs from all hitherto known species, since the infuscations 
consist only of a large central spot, an apical marginal band, and a submarginal 
line basad of it (text-fig. 8). 

11. Caecilius novoguineensis Enderlein. 

Enderlein, Ann. Mus. Nat. Hung., I, p. 276, Taf. VII, fig. 4-3, 1903. 
Karny, Bull. Ent. Res., XVI, p. 290, 1926. 

Upolu : Malololelei, 2,000 feet, 25.xi.1924, 2 dried specimens ; Apia, 
17.V.1924, 1 specimen in spirit. 

The type of C. novoguineensis was obtained in New Guinea, and the species 
was subsequently recorded by myself (loc. cit.) as occurring in Fiji. 



PSOCOPTERA. 



129 



LIST OF TEXT-FIGURES. 

Text-fig. 1. Zorotypus buxtoni, sp. n. Antenna from first to sixth joint (above) ; labial palp 
(left) ; maxillary palp (below) ; cercus (right) . 
2. Nepticulomima biroiana (Enderlein). Front and hind wings; the dotted line in the 
hind wing indicates an anomalous cross-vein, present in one specimen. 
,, 3. Lepidopsocus hopkinsi, sp. n. Front and hind wings. 

4. Echmepteryx desquamata , sp. n. Front and hind wings. 
,, 5. Pteroxaniella bifurcata, gen. et sp. n. Front wing (diagrammatic). 
,, 6. Phlotodes samoanus, sp. n. Ramification of median vein of front wing (above) ; hind 
wing (centre) ; and hind tarsus (below). 
7. Philotarsus samoanus, sp. n. Front and hind wing, and leg. 
,, 8. Mepleres submarginalis , sp. n. Front wing. 



PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED, LONDON AND BECCLES. 



INSECTS OF SAMOA 

AND OTHER SAMOAN TERRESTRIAL 
ARTHROPODA 

LIST OF PARTS AND SYSTEM OF PUBLICATION :— 

Part I. Orthoptera and Dermaptera. 

II. Hemiptera. 

,, III. Lepidoptera. 

,, IV. Coleoptera. 

,, V. Hymenoptera. 

„ VI. Diptera. 

„ VII. Other Orders of Insects. 

„ VIII. Terrestrial Arthropoda other than Insects. 

„ IX. Summary and index. 

The work is published at intervals in the form of numbered fascicles. 
Although individual fascicles may contain contributions by more than one 
author, each fascicle is so arranged as to form an integral portion of one or 
other of the Parts specified above. 



List of Fascicles issued to 27th February, 1932 



Insects of Samoa and other Samoan Terrestrial Arthropoda. Maps 1 and 
2 (in envelope). 1927, 4to. 6d. 

Part I. Orthoptera and Dermaptera. 

Fasc. 1. Dermaptera. By Dr. Alfredo Borelli. Pp. 1-8. 1928, 4to. Is. 
Fasc. 2. Orthoptera. ByDr.L.Chopard. 51 text-figures. Pp. 9-58. 1929, 4to. 5s. 

Part II. Hemiptera. 

Fasc. 1. Fulgoroidea. By F. Muir. 25 text-figures. Psyllidas (Chermidas). By 
Prof. D. L. Crawford. 4 text-figures. Coccida?, Aphididae and Alevrodida. 
By F. Laing, MA., B.Sc. 3 text-figures. Pp. 1-45. 1927, 4to. 2s. 6 d. 

Fasc. 2. Cercopidae. By V. Lallemand, MD. 10 text-figures. Cicadida;. By 
J. G. Myers, Sc.D. 22 text-figures. Aquatic and Semi-aquatic Heteroptera. 
By Prof. Teiso Esaki. 6 text-figures. Pp. 47-80. 1928. 4to. 2s. 6d. 

Fasc. 3. Heteroptera. By W. E. China, BA. (Cantab.). 28 text-figures. 
Pp. 81-162. 1930, 4to. 5s. 

Part III. Lepidoptera. 

Fasc. 1 . Butterflies of Samoa and some neighbouring Island-groups. By G. H. E. 
Hopkins : MA., F£.S. 1 text-figure and 4 plates. Pp. 1-64. 1927, 4to. 5s. 

Fasc. 2. Micro-Lepidoptera. By Edward Meyrick, BA., F.R.S. Pp. 65-116. 
1927, 4to. 2s. 6d. 

Fasc. 3. Geometridae. By Louis B. Prout, F.E.S. 2 text-figures and 1 plate. 
Pp. 117-168. 1928, 4to. 2,.6d. 



Date Issued. 
26th February, 1927. 

28/A July, 1928. 
26th January, 1929. 



25th June, 1927. 

23rd June, 1928. 
26th July, 1930. 

9th April, 1927. 
2%ihMay, 1927. 
24th March, 1928. 



List of Fascicles issued to 27th February, 1932 (continued) 



ART IV. CoLEOPTERA. 

Fasc. I. Carabidae. By H. E. Andrewes. 9 text-figures. Dytiscidae. By A. 
Zimmermann. 2 text-figures. Staphylinidas. By M. Cameron, M.B. 2 text- 
figures. Hydropbilidae. By A. d'Orchymont. 1 text-figure. Clavicornia and 
Lamellicornia. By G.J. Arrow. 13 text-figures. Pp. 1-66. 1927, 4to. 3s. 

Fasc. 2. Heteromera, Bostrychoidea, Malacodermata and Buprestidae. By K. G . 
Blair, B. Sc. 14 text-figures. Elateridae. Bv R. H. van Zwaluwenberg. 10 
text-figures.^ Melasidae (Eucnemidae)., By E. Fleutiaux. Cei'ambycidae. By 
Chr. Aurivillius. 1 plate. Brenthidae. By R. Kfeine. 4 text-figures. 
Anthribidae. By Karl Jordan, Ph.D. 11 text-figures. Proterhinidae. By 
R. C. L. Perkins, D.Sc, F.R.S. Pp. 67-174. 1928, 4to. 5s. 

Fasc. 3. Throscidae. By K. G. Blair, B.Sc. 1 text-figure. Chrysomelidee. 
By S. Maulik. M.A. 18 text-figures. Pp. 175-215. 1929. 4to. 2s. 6d. 

Fasc. 4. Platypodidae and Scolytidae. By C. F. C. Beeson, D.Sc. 13 text- 
figures. Pp. 217-248. 1929, 4to. 2s. 6d. 

Fasc. 5. Curculionidae. By Sir Guy Marshall, C.M.G., D.Sc, F.R.S. 3! text- 
figures. Pp. 249-346. 1931, 4to. 5s. 

Part V. Hymenoptera. 

Fasc. 1. Apoidea, Sphecoidea, and Vespoidea. By R. C. L. Perkins, D.Sc, 
F.R.S., and L. Evelyn Cheesman, F.E.S., FZ.S. 12 text-figures. Larridae. 
By Francis X. Williams. 12 text-figures. Formicidae. By Dr. F. Santschi. 
9 text-figures. Pp. 1-58. 1928, 4to. 5s. 

Part VI. Diptera. 

Fasc. 1. Streblidae and Nycteribiidae. By L. Falcoz. 7 text-figures. Hippo- 
boscidae. By G. F. Ferris. 6 text-figures. Pp. 1-21. 1 927, 4to. 2s. 6d. 

Fasc. 2. Nematocera. By F.W.Edwards, M.A. 20 text-figures. Cecidomyiinae. 
By H. F. Barnes, BA. Ph.D. 4 text-figures. Pp. 23-108. 1928, 4to. 5». 

Fast. 3. Stratiomyiidae, Tabanidse and Asilidae. By Gertrude Ricardo. 6 text- 
figures. Larvae of Stratiomyiidae. By P. A; Buxton, M.A. 2 text-figures. 
Dolicbopodidae. By C. G. Lamb. Sc.D. 8 text-figures. Sarcophagi d*. By 
P. A. Buxton, M.A. 9 text-figures. Muscida;. By J. R. Milloch. 
Pp. 109-175. 1929, 4to. 5s. " 

Fasc. 4. Empididae and Pipunculidae. By J. E Collin. 7 text-figures. 
Syrphidae. Bv Frank M. Hull. 2 text-figures. Clusiidae (Heteroneuridae) 
and Sapromyzidae. By J. R. Malloch. 6 text-figures. Pp. 177-213. 1929, 
4to. 2s. 6d. 

Fasc. 5. Ortalidae. By J. R. Malloch. 6 text-figures. Calliphoridae. By 

J. R. Malloch. Pp. 215-237. 1930, 4to. 2s. 
Fasc. 6. Lonchaeidae, Chloropidae and Piophilidae. By J. R. Malloch. 3 

text-figures. Pp. 239-251. 1930, 4to. Is. 

Fasc. 7. Trypetidae. By J. R. Malloch. 1 text-figure. Pp. 253-266. 1931, 4tD. Is. 

Part VII. Other Orders of Insects. 

Fasc. 1. Isoptera : Family Termitidae. By Gerald F. Hill. 14 text-figurss and 

1 plate. Odonata. By Lt-Col. F. C. Fraser, I.M.S., F.E.S. 5 text-fi?ures. 

Pp. 1-44. 1927, 4to. 2s. 6i. 
Fasc. 2. Plectoptera. By R. J. Tillyard, Sc.D. (Cantab.), F.R.S., and J. A. 

Lestage. 2 text-figures. Siphonaptera. By P. A. Buxton, MA. Thysanoptera. 

By Richard S. Bagnall, F.R.S.E..F.L.S. 6 text-figures. Pp. 45-76. 1928, 4to. 

2s. 6d. 

Fasc. 3. Ma'.lophaga. By J. Waterston, D.Sc. 2 text-figures. Anoplura. By 

P. A. Buxton, MA. Trichoptera. By Martin ET Mosely. 1 figure. 

NeuroDtera. By P. Esben- Petersen. 1 text-figure and 2 plates. Apterygota. 

By George H. Carpenter. D.Sc. 32 text-figures. Pp. 77-1 16. 1928.4to. 2s. 6d. 
Fasc. 4. Psocoptera. By Dr. H. H. Karny. 8 text-figures. Pp. 117-129. 

Is. 

Part VIII. Terrestrial Arthropoda other than Insects. 

Fasc. 1. Isopoda Terrestria. By Harold G. Jackson, DjSc. 2 plates. Scor- 
pionoidea. By P. A. Buxton, M A. Pseudo-scorpiones. By A. Kastner. 11 
text-fimires. Acarina. By Stanley Hirst. 2 text-figures. Pp. 1-27. 1927, 
4to. 2s. 6d. 

Fasc. 2. Myriopoden (Myriopoda). By C. Attems, 4 text-figures. Araignees 
(Araneida). By Dr. Lucien Berland. 79 text-figures. Pp. 29-78. 1929, 4to. 2s. 6d. 

Part IX. Summary and Index. 

Fasc. 1. Description of the Environment. By P. A. Buxton, M-R-C.S. 2 
text-figures and 6 plates. Pp. 1-31 . 1930, 4to. 2s 6d. 



Date Issued. 
]9th December, 1927. 

25th February, 1926. 
23r<2 February, 1929. 
22nd June, 1929. 
25th April, 1931. 

25 th February, 1928. 

23rd July, 1927. 
23rd June, 1928. 

1 1 th May, 1929. 

27/A July, 1929. 

22nd March, 1930. 

22nd November, 1930. 
28th November, 1931. 

28fA May, 1927. 

23rd June, 1928. 

28th July, 1928. 
27^ February, 1932. 

23rd July, 1927. 
22nd June, 1929. 

22nd November, 1930.